Navalny, who had imprisoned last month for organizng an unauthorized protest in Moscow on January 28, was released on Monday, but arrested moments after he walked free.
“Alexei Navalny was detained outside the detention centre,” his spokeswoman, Kira Yarmysh, wrote on Twitter, adding that the politician was taken to a central police station in the capital.
According to her, Navalny was accused of violating a different protest law and faces up to 20 days in prison.
He is due to appear in court later on Monday, Yarmysh said, adding that he could face a fine and up to 20 days in jail.
An ally to him, Leonid Volkov, also wrote on Twitter that Navalny had been taken to a police station as he walked out of jail and faced fresh accusations of violating protest laws.
Navalny accused authorities, the last time he was imprisoned, of trying to prevent him from leading protests against a pension reform across the country.
He has repeatedly been jailed for staging unauthorized protests.
The opposition leader had also been barred from running for president at this year’s presidential election over a previous conviction for fraud.